Gearing Options For Allroad Bikes: 1x vs. 2x Drivetrains

All-road bikes, designed for versatility and adaptability, offer a wide range of gearing options to accommodate various terrains and riding styles. The choice between a 1x and a 2x drivetrain is a crucial consideration that can significantly influence your riding experience. This article aims to provide an in-depth understanding of these two popular drivetrain configurations, their respective strengths, limitations, and appropriate usage scenarios. By the end, you should have a clearer picture of which system aligns best with your all-road biking goals and preferences. So, whether you’re an experienced cyclist seeking to optimize your gear selection or a beginner exploring the all-road biking world, this comprehensive guide is here to shed light on your gearing options.

Understanding Drivetrains: The Basics

A bike’s drivetrain is a critical component that transfers power from the rider’s pedaling effort to the rear wheel, propelling the bike forward. It consists of several key parts including the chainrings at the front (connected to the pedals), the cassette at the rear wheel, the chain connecting them, and the derailleurs that move the chain between gears. The terms “1x” (pronounced “one-by”) and “2x” (“two-by”) refer to the number of chainrings in the system. A 1x drivetrain has a single chainring at the front, while a 2x has two. Each configuration offers unique benefits and drawbacks, influencing the bike’s performance on different terrains.

What is a Drivetrain?

A drivetrain is a system in a bike that transfers the rider’s pedaling effort into the mechanical force that drives the rear wheel, enabling the bike to move forward.

Components of a Drivetrain

The drivetrain is composed of several interconnected parts that work in unison to deliver a smooth and efficient riding experience.

  1. Chainrings: Located at the front and connected to the pedals, chainrings come in different sizes to provide varying gear ratios. In a 1x system, there is one chainring, while in a 2x, there are two.
  2. Cassette: This is the collection of sprockets attached to the rear wheel. The number and size of these sprockets determine the gear range of the bike.
  3. Chain: This component transfers power from the chainrings to the cassette. Its length and strength are crucial for the bike’s overall performance.
  4. Derailleurs: These mechanical devices ‘derail’ the chain from one sprocket to another, changing the gear. Front derailleurs shift the chain between the chainrings, while rear derailleurs do the same on the cassette.
  5. Shifters: Located on the handlebars, shifters control the derailleurs. The rider uses these to change gears according to the terrain and their riding speed.
  6. Bottom Bracket: This component houses the bike’s crankshaft, allowing the crank arms to rotate freely while connecting the chainrings and pedals.

Each of these components can be customized and fine-tuned to suit a rider’s specific needs and riding conditions. For instance, an all-road bike rider might opt for a wider gear range to handle diverse terrains, requiring careful selection of chainrings and cassette sprockets.

The 1x Drivetrain

A 1x (pronounced “one-by”) drivetrain refers to a system with a single chainring at the front and multiple sprockets in the cassette at the back. This configuration simplifies shifting, reduces weight, and increases ground clearance.

Overview of 1x Drivetrains

A 1x drivetrain simplifies the gearing system by eliminating the front derailleur. This allows for streamlined, single-handed shifting and reduces the overall weight and mechanical complexity of the bike.

Advantages of 1x Drivetrains

One of the main advantages of 1x drivetrains is their simplicity. There’s only one shifter to manage, reducing decision-making while riding. This simplicity also results in less maintenance and fewer mechanical issues. The lack of a front derailleur increases ground clearance, an advantage for off-road and gravel riding. Single chainrings can also offer a wide gear range when paired with a large-sprocket rear cassette, suitable for diverse terrains.

Limitations of 1x Drivetrains

Despite their benefits, 1x systems do have some drawbacks. The primary limitation is the potentially smaller gear range compared to 2x systems, which could be a disadvantage in hilly terrains or for riders who prefer high-speed road cycling. There can also be larger jumps between gears in the cassette, making it harder to maintain a steady cadence. Lastly, while 1x systems are generally lighter, a large rear cassette can offset this weight advantage.

The 2x Drivetrain

A 2x (pronounced “two-by”) drivetrain includes two chainrings at the front and multiple sprockets in the rear cassette. This setup provides a wider gear range and more finely-tuned control over your cadence and speed.

Overview of 2x Drivetrains

A 2x drivetrain, having two chainrings at the front, offers a broader spectrum of gear ratios. These systems typically have a front derailleur to switch between the larger (for higher speed) and smaller (for easier climbing) chainrings.

Advantages of 2x Drivetrains

The biggest advantage of a 2x system is the wide gear range, making it versatile for a variety of terrains and riding styles. The presence of two chainrings allows for smaller jumps between gears, facilitating smoother transitions and more control over cadence. This can be particularly beneficial for maintaining momentum in road cycling or during steep climbs. The 2x system also tends to be more efficient in terms of power transfer, especially at higher speeds.

Limitations of 2x Drivetrains

The main drawback of 2x drivetrains is the increased mechanical complexity and weight due to the additional chainring and front derailleur. This not only adds to the overall weight of the bike, but also requires more maintenance. The front derailleur can also be more prone to mechanical issues and can decrease ground clearance, which may be a disadvantage in off-road riding. Furthermore, the skill and attention required to manage two shifters can be a challenge for some riders.

Comparing 1x vs. 2x Drivetrains

When it comes to choosing between a 1x and 2x drivetrain for your all-road bike, it’s important to consider factors such as gear range, efficiency, complexity and maintenance, weight, and versatility.

Gear Range

2x drivetrains generally offer a broader gear range, with more options for both high-speed riding and steep climbs. However, advancements in 1x technology, like larger cassettes, have helped close the gap, providing a comparable range of gears, although with larger jumps between them.


2x systems tend to offer higher efficiency at higher speeds due to smaller jumps between gears. This allows riders to maintain an optimal cadence more easily. However, 1x systems, with their straighter chain line, can also provide efficient power transfer, particularly at moderate speeds.

Complexity and Maintenance

1x drivetrains are simpler, with fewer components, which can lead to less maintenance and fewer potential points of failure. On the other hand, 2x drivetrains, with their front derailleurs, require more regular adjustment and care.


With one less chainring and no front derailleur, 1x drivetrains are typically lighter than their 2x counterparts. However, the larger rear cassettes often used with 1x systems can offset this weight advantage to some extent.


Both systems have their strengths in terms of versatility. A 1x system, with its simpler operation and better chain retention, may excel in rough, off-road conditions. Meanwhile, a 2x drivetrain, with its wider and more finely-tuned gear range, may be the better choice for varied terrain, from smooth asphalt to steep gravel roads.

Choosing the Right Drivetrain for Your All-Road Bike

Selecting the most suitable drivetrain involves a careful consideration of various factors including your personal riding style, your cycling objectives, and your preferences for maintenance and budget.

Assessing Your Riding Style and Terrain

Consider the terrain you typically ride on. If you frequent areas with varied gradients or ride long distances, a 2x drivetrain’s wide gear range may be beneficial. Conversely, if you ride primarily off-road or in muddy conditions, a 1x drivetrain’s simplicity and improved chain retention could be advantageous.

Considering Your Riding Goals and Fitness Level

Your cycling goals and physical fitness also play a part. For bikepacking, touring, or racing, a 2x drivetrain might be more suitable due to its greater range. However, if you prioritize simplicity and weight savings, a 1x drivetrain could be a better fit.

Factoring in Maintenance Preferences and Budget

Your willingness and ability to perform regular maintenance and the amount you’re willing to spend should also be taken into account. 1x drivetrains generally require less maintenance and can be cheaper, but 2x drivetrains, while requiring more care, offer more gearing options.

Conclusion: The Future of Drivetrains in All-Road Bikes

As cycling technology continues to evolve, we can anticipate further improvements in both 1x and 2x drivetrain systems. Ultimately, the choice between these two options will remain a personal one, based on each rider’s unique needs, preferences, and the specific demands of their chosen terrain.

Ready to start your all-road biking journey? Explore the Rinasclta Granite All-Road bike frames, compatible with both 1x and 2x drivetrains. Crafted with meticulous attention to detail and customizable to your specific needs, these frames offer a fantastic foundation for your next all-round biking adventure.